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Mr. John Smith

Job title



Automobiles are predominantly constructed and fuelled with non-renewable resources. Automotive manufacturers have sought to change not only the way vehicles run, but the materials that make up the build. This results in a greater focus on raw materials that are both reliable and renewable from manufacturers globally. Those key elements are some of the many benefits of Cashew Nutshell Liquid (CNSL). CNSL is non disruptive to the food chain and sourced from the waste stream of the food product. A Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for evaluating environmental impacts of a given product or process. The LCA presented here focuses on a series of commercially available CNSL-based Friction Materials, commonly used in brake pads and linings. The study utilizes a cradle-to-gate boundary, including all upstream and local processes (energy consumption, raw material acquisition and emission data). Other factors taken into consideration are transport of raw materials, both via land and sea, with regards to emissions and fossil fuel consumption. The outcome of an LCA will help understand lifetime impacts of a product, this understanding can be critical to nearing carbon neutral or net zero carbon targets and reducing the overall impact on the environment. This poster provides a look at materials derived from CNSL that can be compared to other potential additives or supplements in a braking system from an environmental point of view. The data within may be used by end users to determine or set targets within their own LCA.

Palmer International: Mr. John Maxwell, Mr. Andrew Maseloff, Dr. Doug Rhubright

Evaluation of environmental impact from production of CNSL-based friction particle through life cycle assessment

EB2022-EBS-022 • Oral • EuroBrake 2022 • Poster


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