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Dekati Ltd. is a world leader in designing and manufacturing innovative fine particle measurement solutions. We have over 25 years of experience in providing measurement instruments and complete measurement solutions to a wide variety of environments and sample conditions. We take pride in the quality and robustness of our products and are committed to finding the best possible solution for your aerosol measurement needs. Our experience and expertise in aerosol measurement applications is at your disposal throughout the lifecycle of your investment via our global partner network. All Dekati® Products are developed and manufactured in Finland and are available with up to five-year warranty.

Our brake emission measurement solutions include both particle detection and dilution systems, and today we have solutions for both for research and routine monitoring of brake emissions from 6 nm up to 10 µm. The highlights of our product line include the ELPI®+ product family that enables real-time measurement of particle size distribution in up to 500 size channels 6 nm-10 µm. ELPI®+ products also always include the option for post-measurement chemical analysis of the size classified, collected samples. The High Temperature version of the ELPI®+ additionally allows direct measurement of up to 180 °C aerosol sample without the need to cool the sample. In addition to the ELPI®+ instruments, Dekati® Product Line includes several other instruments for both particle detection and aerosol sample conditioning and dilution. Visit us in the exhibition area to learn more about Dekati® Measurement Solutions for brake wear emission measurements!

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16 July 2021

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FISITA Library

EB2023-TST-016

Oral

Mr. Jon Andersson, Global Technical Expert Emissions Measurements and Standrads, Ricardo UK, Automotive and Industrial; Dr. Louisa Kramer, Senior Consultant, Ricardo Energy and Environment; Mr. Michael Campbell, Principal Consultant, Ricardo Energy and Environment; Dr. Ian Marshall, Associate Director, Ricardo Energy and Environment; Mr. Jason Southgate, Principal Consultant, Ricardo Energy and Environment; Dr. John Norris, Principal Consultant, Ricardo Energy and Environment; Mr. Gary Waite, Principal Engineer - Chassis, Ricardo UK, Automotive and Industrial; Mr. Simon de Vries, Development Engineer, Ricardo UK, Automotive and Industrial; Dr. David Miles, Head of Environmental Standards, UK Department for Transport; Dr. Claudio Chesi, Senior Technical Specialist, UK Department for Transport; Dr. David Deakin, Technical Director, Arup AECOM Consortium

Detail

Ricardo was contracted by the UK Department for Transport (DfT), to develop a “proof-of-concept” system for measuring mass and number of non-exhaust emissions (NEE) of particles, under real-world driving conditions. The project is planned to comprise three phases. The initial, recently completed phase, saw the development of on-board approaches to sample and measure brake (and also tyre wear) particles from light-duty vehicles. Brake wear particles were sampled from a Volkswagen Caddy van, extracted from a fixed volume created by enclosing the pad and disc. Three different enclosure designs were developed. Particles produced by braking events were continuously transported, near-isokinetically, from the sampling point to a sample tunnel, where measurements of number-weighted particle size distributions were determined by two Dekati ELPI+ systems. ELPI+ systems function by separating particles into different size ranges according to their inertial properties. Particles are charged at the ELPI+ inlet. Charges carried by the particles are transferred to electrometers associated with each size range, allowing real-time size distribution and number concentration data to be acquired. One ELPI+ was heated, with the other at ambient temperature, further allowing discrimination between particle volatilities. A Dekati eFilter based upon diffusion charging was used to provide a cumulative PM mass sample and a real-time mass signal. Filters collected were subjected to basic chemical analyses. To avoid particle losses from the brake enclosure, and to manage temperatures, a constant stream of HEPA filtered air was supplied to move particles to the sample tunnel, this also providing positive pressure within the enclosure and preventing particle ingress from ambient air. Consequently, background particle levels were negligible. Measurements were made on the chassis dynamometer from a bespoke drive cycle constructed to produce high particle emissions, from road tests in an urban area, and from repeated braking events on a test track. Results showed strong signals of particle release from brakes in response to braking pressure signals and road speed data recorded from the vehicle On-Board Diagnostics, with both solid and volatile particles produced. Particle number emissions from brakes were of a similar order to published values from brake dynamometer testing, while mass emissions sampling efficiency appeared to be consistent with collecting PM2.5.

EuroBrake 2023

Real world brake PM emissions measurement

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Particle emissions from brake wear – results from the phase 1 study for the UK DfT, EB2023-TST-016, EuroBrake 2023

EB2023-TST-006

Full

Mr. Ishmaeel Ghouri, PhD Student, University of Leeds; Prof. Richard Barker, Professor, Univeristy of Leeds; Prof. Peter Brooks, Associate Professor, Univeristy of Leeds; Prof. David Barton, Professor, Univeristy of Leeds

Detail

The new Euro 7 standard is set to be in place by 2025, which will be the first legislation that will cap the emissions produced by a brake system. This has caused brake manufacturers to find alternative solutions to reduce the emissions generated from the conventional cast iron friction brake system. With electric vehicles (EVs) becoming the future of the modern vehicle, their regenerative braking system will cause the friction brakes not to be used as frequently as for an internal engine combustion vehicle. This may lead to a build-up of corrosion on the brake rotor that may not only affect the performance and service life of the brakes but also increase particle emission when braking. Aluminium metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) rotors could be an alternative solution to reduce the risk of corrosion failure, possibly produce lower brake emissions and also improve the efficiency of the EV by reducing its un-sprung mass. To understand the interrelation between brake rotor corrosion and particulate emission, this study concentrates on quantifying such emissions from an Al-MMC friction brake both before and after exposure to a corrosive environment. A ‘drag braking’ duty cycle was chosen for this dynamometer study, as this produces near steady-state conditions at the friction interface. Each test was run at a constant speed of 150 rpm and at three different brake hydraulic pressures, 5, 7.5 and 10 bars. The duration of each test was 90 minutes and each test was repeated three times. The brake pad material used was specifically designed to work on the Al MMC rotor which consisted of 30% silicon carbide reinforcement in an Al alloy matrix. Tests were conducted within an enclosed chamber on the Leeds brake dynamometer and airborne emissions were sampled using a Dekati electrical low-pressure cascade impactor (ELPI+). Tests were first conducted on the newly-machined uncorroded Al-MMC rotor surface The corrosion test consisted of exposing this brake rotor to a corrosive environment in a salt spray chamber for 96 hours. The salt spray conditions were based on the ASTM B117-11 standard. The corroded brake disc then underwent the same drag brake duty cycles repeated three times for each pressure condition. The brake wear particles were collected within the 14 stages of the ELPI+ and subjected to post-test analysis as described below. The post-test analysis consisted of using different microscopy techniques to investigate the topography and composition of the brake wear particles. Gravimetric wear measurement methods were also incorporated into the post-test protocol. Advanced characterisation techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and secondary electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterise the surfaces of the brake pads and to characterise and identify the elements of the brake wear particles collected from the ELPI+ before and after the corrosion cycles. The results were compared with the corresponding emissions from a conventional grey cast iron rotor subjected to the identical corrosion and brake test cycles.

EuroBrake 2023

Brake disc solutions for reducingbrake PM emissions

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Particle emission from an Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (Al MMC) brake rotor before and after corrosion, EB2023-TST-006, EuroBrake 2023

EB2023-CVH-001

Full

Mr. Willian Ferreira de Camargo, Research Chemist, Fras-le SA; Dr. Eng. Ana Paula Gomes Nogueira, Engineer, Università di Trento; Ms. Natalia Pagnoncelli Lorandi, Chemical Engineer, Fras-le SA; Mr. Ricardo Gilberto Lamb, Sr. Chemical Engineer, Fras-le SA; Prof. Dr. Giovanni Straffelini, Professor, Università di Trento

Detail

The relevance of brake emission measurements and control aiming the years to come is increasing, as the efforts to reduce particle emissions from automotive friction systems. Removing copper from friction materials due to environmental legislation brought, also, an impact on brake emission and now friction material industry works with a challenge to develop copper-free and low-brake emission materials. This work presents a comparison of airborne particle emissions originated from three different commercial brake pad formulations and relates them to each tribological behavior and raw materials applied. The objective of this work was to verify if abrasive and lubricants elements, in some defined contents and sizes, have a clear and defined role on brake emission of copper-free materials and compare them to a copper-based one to understand different emission behaviors, also correlating bench tests with inertial dynamometer tests. A Pin-on-Disc investigation was done in an enclosured tribometer, considering a copper-based (Cu-Full) and two copper-free (Cu-free) friction material formulations. A TSI® Optical Particle Sizer (OPS) model measured the particle number concentration and a Dekati® PM10 impactor connected to the chamber measured the two size ranges from 10 to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and from 2.5 to 1 μm (PM1). SEM micrographs and EDXS maps of the materials under study were obtained to properly characterize the pad and disc surfaces and collected airbornes as well. The Cu-full formulation showed intermediate values of friction coefficient, pin wear and emissions but disc wear was higher than the other two materials. When a Cu-free made of long metallic fibers and coarser lubricants was analyzed, higher friction coefficient, higher pin wear and higher emissions were identified. When analyzing a Cu-free made of a mix of metallic fiber and powders, as finer lubricants, the lowest friction coefficient, lower pin and disc wear and lower emissions were identified. These results corroborate with results from wear tests in commercial dynamometer, where the second Cu-free formulation shows an outstanding rotor durability. A correlation between higher disc wear and higher brake emissions is likely to happen, which indicates that different metallic shapes, abrasive particles and lubricant species, depending on the sizes and contents, act directly on promoting lessen airborne emissions.

EuroBrake 2023

Pad based fundamentals

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An analysis of brake emissions measurements, tribological behavior and dynamometer performance in Cu-free and Cu-full friction materials, EB2023-CVH-001, EuroBrake 2023
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