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Southern Illinois University

Southern Illinois University

United States



SIU is where brains and heart intersect. Our beautiful campus is home to major opportunities in a number of fields. We welcome students from all walks of life from around the world and pride ourselves on inclusivity.

Founded in 1869 as the state’s second teachers college – with a dozen academic departments and an inaugural class of 143 – SIU Carbondale is the flagship campus of the Southern Illinois University System. It is a strong, diverse, student-centered research-intensive and comprehensive university that recently earned the prestigious 2015 community engagement classification from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. That designation reflects our longstanding commitment to service and outreach; in 2013 alone, 237,000 residents of central and southern Illinois benefited from 578 initiatives with more than 3,000 community partners.

Diversity is an integral part of our legacy, dating to the inaugural class of 143 that included two African American students. Today, minority students make up 29 percent of our total enrollment, and SIU Carbondale continues to rank among the nation’s top colleges and universities in the number of degrees awarded to students in ethnic and racial minority groups. The physical beauty of the region is a major attraction to students, faculty and visitors. Sixty miles to the south of Carbondale is the historic confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, the two forming the border of the southern tip of Illinois. Situated within 10 miles of the campus are two state parks, the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge and four large recreational lakes. Much of the area is a part of the 240,000-acre Shawnee National Forest.




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16 July 2021


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Southern Illinois University: Mr. Vishal Reddy Singireddy, Mr. Rohit Jogineedi, Dr. Peter Filip


As the automotive industry tends towards development of sustainable and environmentally friendly friction material, studies on potentially recycling and re-using friction material have become increasingly important. In this research, two brake pads, made of sustainable recycled friction material (ACI Industries, Ltd.), identical in formulation except the type of rubber (Zeon Chemicals L.P.), were developed in the laboratory. Rubbers are a key component in brake friction material and impact dampening the friction level and stability, wear, vibration, and noise, by contributing to formation of friction layers and influencing mechanical and thermal and corrosion properties of brake pads. These aspects become even more relevant when electric vehicles are considered since they are almost noise-free. The laboratory-developed samples were tested by adopting the scaled-down SAE J2522 brake effectiveness procedure [1, 2, 3] against surface treated commercially available pearlitic gray cast iron rotors (Waupaca Foundry Inc.), [4, 5]. Universal Mechanical Tester (UMT, Tribolab by Bruker) was used to perform the test. Vibrational response was characterized by using a triaxial ICP accelerometer (PCB Electronics, Model = 356A45), sound pressure levels were monitored by a ¼” free-field prepolarized microphone (PCB Electronics, Model = 377C01) and data from them were collected using a high-performance oscilloscope (Agilent Technologies, Model = MSOX2024A) and DAQ (NI USB - 6218). Wear debris and the friction surfaces of tested samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEI, Model: Quanta FEG450) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Oxford Instruments). Mechanical properties, density and porosity were measured using CV Shore D durometer (ASTM D2240) and AWS ALX – 310 precision balance. The developed lightweight samples exhibited extremely low open porosity (

EuroBrake 2022

Advances in friction material formulation



Performance of environmentally sustainable NAO Cu-free brake pads containing nitrile rubbers and recycled friction material, EB2022-EBS-016, EuroBrake 2022


Video + Slides


Mr. Rohit Jogineedi, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, UNITED STATES

Mr. Vishal Reddy Singireddy, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, UNITED STATES

Mr. Sai Krishna Kancharla, PureForge, UNITED STATES

Dr. Peter Filip, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, UNITED STATES

Increased temperature resulting from friction between brake pads and rotors results in formation of friction layers on the friction surfaces and could lead to the bulk material degradation impacting the braking performance. The most often discussed phenomenon is the thermal fade, but there are additional phenomena like thermal shock, crack formations, and increased residual stresses in brake rotors which occur due to local heating. Formation of friction layers is also strongly influenced by temperature on the friction surface, as it defines thermodynamics and kinetics of processes occurring during friction. Gray cast iron is a metal matrix composite comprising of ferrite, pearlite, graphite, and additional inclusions. Morphology, quality, and quantity of these phases can change as temperature varies during and after friction process. Thermal diffusivity characterizes how quickly a material could dissipate heat through it. Grey cast irons exhibit a reasonably high thermal diffusivity and an excellent capacity to dissipate heat. But this characteristic varies in dependence on composition and microstructure of cast irons. The volume content and morphology of graphite flakes found in gray cast irons have the most relevant impact on their thermal diffusivity values. The current study compares the graphite flake morphology of three commercially available gray cast iron rotors, named A, B, and C respectively, manufactured according to the ASTM A48 standard. These rotors are subjected to a complete currently available standardized SAE J2522 friction test on a bench top tester using scaled-down approach, and a commercially available non asbestos organic (NAO) brake pad. Complete material characterization of the friction material using laser flash apparatus (NETZSCH LFA 467), polarized light microscopy (Nikon Microphot FX), scanning electron microscopy (FEI Quanta FEG 450), energy dispersive X-Ray microanalysis (Oxford detector, Inca Systems), topography (NPFLEX 3D Optical Microscopy), and density (analytical balance and Archimedes principle). The polarized light microscopy results of the three commercially available brake rotors reveal the presence of flake-like graphite with average flake sizes as 55 µm, 33 µm, and 60 µm and area fraction as 28%, 26%, and 30%, respectively. Thermal diffusivity values of the studied rotors when measured in temperature range between 25 oC and 500 oC show a decrease by 52.4%, 53.6%, and 54.8% respectively. Commercial brake rotor C exhibited the presence of increased content of oxides in the friction layer formed during elevated temperatures, which helped in the observed improved friction performance.

EuroBrake 2021




On Thermal Diffusivity of Selected Gray Cast Irons and its Impact on Friction Performance of Automotive Brakes, EB2021-FBR-006, EuroBrake 2021

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