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University of Bradford

University of Bradford

United Kingdom



With over 50 years of academic excellence behind us as a University, we continue to grow our international reputation, course provision, and research impact.

We have always been pioneers in developing new course subjects and modes of teaching, reflecting and anticipating the needs of employers, our students, and of society as a whole; our course provision and research strategy is designed in response to the changing business, social, scientific and environmental landscape.

Today our associations and networks span the globe; from strong links to leading local and national employers, to academic partner institutions, to the World Technology Universities Network, we are an outward facing institution committed to the creation, dissemination, and application of knowledge for the benefit of global society.

We have an alumni community of more than 140,000 graduates in over 175 countries worldwide.




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16 July 2021


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Poster + Pitch


Mr. Mohammad Ravanbod, University of bradford, UNITED KINGDOM

This project outlines the effect of changing Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratios and shear modulus on the pad natural frequencies. It aims to improve the understanding of the influence of friction material properties on the pad natural frequencies, to observe how the natural frequencies can change, with the changes in the properties of the composite brake pad friction material. In addition, two different brake pad models (Pad-A and Pad-B) were designed, using CATIA V5 software to study whether different pad aspect ratios can affect the influence of friction material properties on the natural frequencies. This study utilizes the free-free analysis on the brake pads, to investigate the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes of the first four modes, using ABAQUS software. Also, an experimental test (Tap testing) on Pad-A was carried out to verify the accuracy of the numerical analysis. The research has demonstrated that the maximum variation between the numerical and the experimental results is 5.1%, which is acceptable. Thus, the numerical analysis provided reasonable results.

Furthermore, the factorial analysis was applied on the obtained natural frequencies for each pad, to find out the material properties that have the main effect on the natural frequencies, and the relationship between each property and the natural frequency, using MINITAB software. The results indicated that increasing Young’s modulus in the horizontal plane can increase the values of natural frequencies, while a decrease in Young’s modulus in the vertical plane, Poisson’s ratios, and shear modulus in all planes can increase the values of the natural frequencies. Therefore, the research deduced that Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratios in the horizontal plane must be taken into account, when choosing a suitable orthotropic friction material for brake pads. This relationship between the friction material properties and the natural frequency is independent of pad aspect ratios, and can be concluded for all types of pads.

The natural frequency plays a significant role in triggering brake squeal. Brake squeal can occur if the pad natural frequency is coupled with the disc frequency. Therefore, determining how altering friction material properties affects the pad natural frequency, can help to propose an appropriate friction material for the pad, in order to have the pad natural frequency, which is not close to the disc frequency in the frequency range, where the brake noise occurs.

EuroBrake 2021




Numerical Modelling of Composite Brake Pad Operational Deflection Shapes, EB2021-STP-008, EuroBrake 2021

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